Archive for » September, 2013 «

Change default username on Raspberry Pi – Thanks to Darrenjw

It is tricky to rename an account while you are logged in to it, and easy to accidentally lock yourself out of your Pi, so first enable the root account with

sudo passwd root

Use a secure password, even if you intend to lock the root account again later. Then log out and log back in as root. The rest supposes a desired username of “myuname” – replace with whatever you want.

usermod -l myuname pi
usermod -m -d /home/myuname myuname

This first renames the account and then moves the home directory associated with it. Then log out and log back in again as “myuname”. If you are still using the default password of “raspberry” on this account, do

passwd

and change password to something more secure. That should be it. Test carefully! “sudo” users seem to get updated OK, but check that your renamed account works and really does have “sudo” privileges before disabling the root account.

Should you prefer to disable the root account, do

sudo passwd -l root

Technically, this just locks the password – it doesn’t completely disable the account. But that’s probably what you want.

Shell In A Box on Raspberry Pi -Thanks to Remi Bergsma

Building and installing Shell In A Box

I want to setup Shell In A Box on my Raspberry Pi. It’s a great device running Linux that has a very small energy consumption footprint. Ideal for an always-on device I’d say!

Since there is no package available, we’ve to compile our own. It’s best to get the sources from Github (original here), since the Github repository contains some patches and fixes for issues on Firefox.

These commands install the required dependencies, clone the Git repository and start building:

apt-get install git dpkg-dev debhelper autotools-dev libssl-dev libpam0g-dev zlib1g-dev libssl1.0.0 libpam0g openssl
git clone https://github.com/pythonanywhere/shellinabox_fork
cd shellinabox_fork
dpkg-buildpackage

During my first attempt, I ran into this problem:

dpkg-source -b shellinabox-2.14
dpkg-source: error: can’t build with source format ’3.0 (quilt)’: no upstream tarball found at ../shellinabox_2.14.orig.tar.{bz2,gz,lzma,xz}
dpkg-buildpackage: error: dpkg-source -b shellinabox-2.14 gave error exit status 255

When grepping for ‘quilt’ I found a file called ‘/debian/source/format’. From what I can tell this does not do anything important, so I ended up deleting the file. Guess what, it now works.

rm ./debian/source/format

Build the package again, this should now succeed.

dpkg-buildpackage

This process will take some time (especially on the Raspberry Pi). Afterwards you’ll find the .deb file ready to be installed.

dpkg -i ../shellinabox_2.14-1_armhf.deb

I changed the configuration, to disallow the build-in SSL and to bind to localhost only. I did this because another web server will serve our terminal. I will explain in a minute.

nano /etc/default/shellinabox

And edit this line:

SHELLINABOX_ARGS="--no-beep -s /terminal:LOGIN --disable-ssl --localhost-only"

Finally, restart the deamon:

/etc/init.d/shellinabox restart

And check if all went well:

/etc/init.d/shellinabox status

You should see:

Shell In A Box Daemon is running

Another way to verify is to check the open ports:

netstat -ntl

You should see:

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:4200 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

Setting up Lighttpd as a proxy

Shell In A Box runs on port 4200 by default. Although this can be changed to a more common 80 or even 443, this is not what I want. I decided to integrate it with another webserver, to be able to combine other services and use just one url (and one SSL certificate). Since the Raspberry Pi isn’t that powerful, I choose Lighttpd.

apt-get install lighttpd
cd /etc/lighttpd/conf-enabled
ln -s ../conf-available/10-proxy.conf

This installs Lighttpd and enables Proxy support. Now add the Proxy config:

nano /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

And add:

proxy.server = (
 "/terminal" =>
  ( (
    "host" => "127.0.0.1",
    "port" => 4200
  ) )
)

Save and restart Lighttpd:

/etc/init.d/lighttpd restart

Connect to http://pi.example.org/terminal and your Shell In A Box terminal should appear.